Six home owners in Amsterdam have been fined €22,000 each for failing to live in properties they had bought, despite the legal requirement to do so.
The home owners face a further €43,000 levy each if they continue to break the city rules officials said on Thursday.
In one case, an international student was paying €2,000 a month to live in a small property in the west of the city, and had also, illegally, paid €2,000 to the agency who mediated on the rental contract.
In another, a couple living in the east had paid an additional €30,000 to their landlord who had promised that they would be able to buy the property in three years time.
The Dutch capital is one of several towns and cities which have brought in new rules stating people who buy a home must live in it themselves.
In Amsterdam, the requirement was brought in on April 1, 2022 and covers property valued at up to €533,000 this year. The rules mean that a buyer is not able to rent out the property for four years after signing the deal.
There are some exceptions covering rents out to direct family members or on a temporary basis if you are posted abroad.
Similar rules also apply in Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Eindhoven.